Indian Arrowheads
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THE HOBBY OF INDIAN RELIC HUNTING IN KANSAS

 

The Native Americans or American Indians history probably began some 40,000 years ago. This is the earliest known date that evidence of man was found in North America. During this time the ice age was fully in swing and an ice bridge linked Asia with North America. The theory today is that the ancestors of the American Indians were actually mongoloids. The evidence is overwhelming to this fact. The scant beard, prominent cheekbones, striaght black hair, broad face, large torso, short legs, dark brown-red skin, and a tendency to slanted eyes. The early hunters followed the herds of mamoth and other animals accross the land bridge and made their way south. The earliest evidence of man in North America is from Arogrande cave in New Mexico. Found was a bunch of chipped stones and the toe bone of a horse with a spear point embeded in it. Also found was an early clay fireplace with human fingerprints in it. These items were dated to 40,000 years ago. (Overstreet 1997) To give you an idea of the time frame, it was only 47,000 years ago that the Homo Sapiens first appeared in europe. Neandrethal man was still roaming the countryside of europe at this time. At 30,000 years, the Neandrethal man started to dissapear from Europe. At 20,000 years ago, the Cro-Magnon man was alive and well. Recently the Cro-Magnon was classified as the same species as modern man. At 20,000 years ago, evidence of the paleo man coming accross the ice bridge from Asia is still evident. This wave is thought to have been the group that populated the Americas. Human occupation of Pennsylvania, Ohio, and West Virginia from remains of bone, stone tools, and other artifacts were dated to this same time period. In July 1953, an amature archaeologist, Keith Glasscock, finds fluted points and bones of ancient man near Midland, Texas. These were also dated to 20,000 years ago. At 14,000 years ago the remains of an encampment is South America was found in a peat bog. (Overstreet 1997) It is rare to find a paleo point at all, and when or if you ever do find one, it generally dates to 12,000-8,000 years ago. At this time, the Wenatchee Clovis Cache was dated. Also the Folsom site near Folsom, New Mexico was dated to this time period. At 10,000 years ago, the glaciers receded and the American Indians were effectively cut off from Asia. A man of mongoloid decent was found entombed in a lake in Florida, along with a Sabre Tooth Tiger and a Giant Ground Sloth. An atl atl was also found, but it is not known if the American Indians invented the atl atl or if it was brought from Asia. (Overstreet 1997) It seems that the American Indians started farming between 7,000 and 3,000 years ago. Maize or corn is native to the Americas and was the staple grain of the region for many centuries before Europeans reached the New World. The origin of corn remains a mystery. Conclusive evidence exists, from archaeological and paleobotanical discoveries, that cultivated corn has existed in the southwestern United States for at least 3000 years. Discoveries in the Tehuacán Valley of southern Mexico have yielded evidence that wild corn existed there 7000 years ago and was not much different in fundamental botanical characteristics from the modern corn plant. (Encarta 1995) The Paleo peoples were mainly nomadic hunters that followed the herds of bison, mammoth, or mastadon. With the extinction of the mastadon around 8,000 years ago, the Paleo people had to learn new ways of finding food. Thus comes the Early Archaic age from 10,000 to 7,000 years ago.

 

THE ABOVE GIVES A HISTORY OF THE INFLUX OF PEOPLE INTO THE AMERICA'S. THE ARTIFACTS THAT WILL BE DISPLAYED ON THIS PAGE WERE ALL FOUND IN AND AROUND KANSAS, MAINLY THE MILL CREEK AREA WEST OF TOPEKA KANSAS.

DOVETAIL ARROWHEADS
These are points commonly found in the Northern High Plains, including Kansas and the neighboring states. These three specimens are very good examples. The size is illustrated by the size of the American quarter.
RIVER FINDS
This is a collection of points found in the rivers around Kansas. Most of the points were found on sandbars on the Kansas River around Topeka. However, some points were found in Mill Creek. The Mill Creek area has been used by the indians for thousands of years.
A GROUP OF THREE FROM DIFFERENT TIMES IN HISTORY
These three items represent three different dates of relics found on the Mill Creek site.
 
The item on the left is a corner tang knife, these were orginally found in Texas and are somewhere around 700 years old.  Corner Tang knives are found in Kansas, but  they are rare in this state.  Corner Tang knives have been defined as blades made of flint, chert. They date from the Late Archaic through the Woodland periods.
 
The top point is a Woodland point, made in the woodland era from 1,000 BC to 800 AD. 
 
The last of the three points is a Paleo point going back to 13,000 BC to 8,000 BC.  The interesting part of this site is how many of the relics were brought in and how many were made there.
A GROUP OF LARGE POINTS
You can tell by the size of the dime the size of these points. At least around here, it would be near impossible to find these kind of points again. With the years of plowing and now with hardly no plowing, finding specimens of these sizes are probably gone for good. Starting from the left.......
1. Dickson Point or Blade, Middle Woodland Period
2. Stanfield Knife, Early Adchaic Period
3. Etley Blade, Late Adchaic Period
4. Sedalia Point, Late Adchaic Period

Archaic Period, 8000 BC -1,000 BC
PARTS AND PIECES
Parts, pieces and small arrows are found in numbers compared to the points found of higher quality.  The small points called "bird points" are however finely crafted.   When finding a camp site you generally can identify it through flint chips.  Native flint is usually abundant but pieces of non-native flint will also be found.  Plains Indians migrated over long distances in their yearly travels and in some locations native flint might not be plentfull, so they kept a supply with them.  You will find many broken pieces of arrow heads to ones that are whole.
TYPICAL KANSAS CHERT
Pictured are artifacts found made in typical blue gray chert found in the flint hills of Kansas. The quality of the chert is very good but does not hold the beauty found in chert from other parts of the country. As you can see and number of different kind of tools were made from Kansas chert, including a number of points, scrappers, celts and the center knife.
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